For a health perspective, they are the same. If looking for other than health concerns they are different.
In terms of appearance:-
- Mold has a fuzzy appearance and can be orange, green, black, brown, pink or purple in color.
- Downy mildew starts as yellow spots that first become brighter in appearance and then the color changes to brown.
- Some molds are used in food production. For example, Penicillium is used in the production of cheese, Neurospora in the production of oncom, which is made from the by-product of tofu, other molds in the production of bread, soya sauce and so on.
- Mildew has no uses as such in food production.
Prevention and Control:-
- To prevent mold in your home, you need to keep all the areas dry and moisture-free. Check the humidity levels inside the house and take measures to control it. Finish perishable food within 3-4 days.
- To prevent mildew at home, keep all the areas moisture-free. There are mildew removers available at stores to eliminate mildew. To protect crops from mildew use mildew-resistant seeds, remove infested plants, avoid overhead heating.
Related: Difference between Mold and Mildew